Rerum Novarum

(en) ”Public institutions and the laws set aside the ancient religion. Hence, by degrees it has come to pass that working men have been surrendered, isolated and helpless, to the hardheartedness of employers and the greed of unchecked competition. The mischief has been increased by rapacious usury, which, although more than once condemned by the Church, is nevertheless, under a different guise, but with like injustice, still practiced by covetous and grasping men. To this must be added that the hiring of labor and the conduct of trade are concentrated in the hands of comparatively few; so that a small number of very rich men have been able to lay upon the teeming masses of the laboring poor a yoke little better than that of slavery itself.”

(hr) ” Javne ustanove i zakonodavstvo ukinuli su drevnu religiju. Tako da se postupno dogodilo to da su se djelatnici predali i postali izolirani i nemoćni uslijed bezćutnosti poslodavaca i pohlepe kao posljedice nekontroliranog (tržišnoga) natjecanja. Bijeda se povečala još više uslijed bezobzirnoga iskorištavanja i koja se, iako opetovano osuđivana od strane Crkve ipak, maskirana, ali sa sličnom nepravičnošću i dalje još uvijek prakticirala od strane  grabežljivih pojedinaca. Tomu se mora dodati i to da su zapošljavanje radne snage i vođenje trgovine koncentrirani u rukama relativno male skupine pojedinaca, tako da se je malom broju vrlo bogatih omogućilo da velikoj masi radništva nametnu nešto manji jaram od samoga ropstva.”

Source: Rerum Novarum – Vatican

Leo XIII Rerum Novarum quote

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“YES, THERE IS A PROBLEM CONCERNING THE CONDITION OF WORKERS, AND SOMETHING MUST BE DONE, BUT THE SOCIALIST PROJECT IS NOT THE SOLUTION.”

Rerum Novarum §1-25: Analysis

The first thing to notice is that, although this document is addressed to the Bishops of the Church (as all encyclicals are), it clearly is intended for the world at large. Here Pope Leo is not instructing merely the Bishops or the Catholic faithful, but all those who recognize the problems between workers and capitalists and are concerned to find a feasible solution. The second thing to notice is that the Pope is directly refuting socialist theory – this document reads like a point-by-point refutation of The Communist Manifesto. All of the key claims and proposals of the Manifesto are shown to be erroneous and unjust: the idea that class warfare is inevitable, the proposal to eliminate private property, the notion that the State should control of the family. So the encyclical begins by saying, in essence, “Yes, there is a problem concerning the condition of workers, and something must be done, but the socialist project is not the solution.”

Source: Rerum Novarum- Analysis

Rerum Novarum §1-25: Summary

[17] First of all, we must take into account human nature, which the socialists seem to ignore or pretend they can change by making all men equal. The fact is that all men are not the equal, with respect to natural abilities and proclivities. A just society provides opportunities for each man to take part in the way in which he is best able, and which suits him best.

[18] Similarly, the socialists are lying or deluded when they promise that they can build a perfect world, free from suffering and injustice, and it is cruel for them to promise what can never be.

[19] One of the biggest errors of the socialists is to insist that the classes are naturally and inevitably hostile to one another – when, in fact, just the opposite is true. The classes need each other, for capital can do nothing without labor, and labor likewise needs capital. And both need the Church to help them act justly toward each other.

[20] Workers must be dutiful in carrying out the labor for which they have willingly contracted, and they should behave with respect toward their employer and his property. Likewise, employers should respect the human dignity of workers, paying them a just wage and allowing them time to fulfill their familial and religious obligations. By no means may they take advantage of a man’s neediness to satisfy their own greed, nor should they manufacture ways to deduct from a man’s just wages. In fact, because the worker has such scanty means, those means should all the more be respected. These basic principles alone, if followed scrupulously, would suffice to maintain good relations between labor and capital.

Source: Rerum Novarum – Summary

(hr) ”Enciklika snažno osuđuje lažne teorije socijalista, i snažno brani pravo privatnog vlasništva. Pravi lijek za novonastale probleme, nalazi se u kombiniranom djelovanju crkve, države, poslodavaca idjelatnika. Crkva je s pravom zainteresirana za socijalna pitanja, zbog vjerskih i moralnih aspekata koja ta pitanja povlače za sobom, a država ima pravo i dužnost da intervenira u ime pravde po pitanjima osobnog i društvenog blagostanja. Poslodavci i djelatnici imaju pravo i dužnost da organiziraju vlastita, ali i zajednička udruženja za zaštitu i samozaštitu.”

(en) ”Encyclica strongly condemns the false theories of Socialists, and strongly defends the right of private property. The real cure for emerging problems is a combined work of the church, the state, employers and workers The church is rightly interested in social issues, because of religious and moral aspects that these issues entail, and the state has the right and duty to intervene in the name of justice in matters of personal and social well-being. Employers and employees have the right and duty to organize their own, but also a common association for the protection and self-protection.”

Rerum Novarum (hr)

Rerum Novarum (prevedeno sa latinskog: O novim stvarima) je enciklikakoju je objavio papa Lav XIII. 15. svibnja 1891. upućena svim katoličkimbiskupima, sa podnaslovom – Prava i obaveze rada i kapitala.

U njoj se raspravlja o odnosu i međusobnim obavezama između ljudske djelatnosti i kapitala, kao i države i njezinih pučana. Već se u prvim redovima naglašava važnost i potreba za poboljšanjem položaja radnika jer je upravo njihov položaj, bez njihove krivnje, najvećim dijelom bijedan i nevoljan. Enciklika načelno podržava pravo radnika na organiziranje svojih udruženja (sindikati), ali odbacuje socijalizam (ukidanje privatnog vlasništva, borba za radnička prava štrajkovima) kao i kapitalizam bez ikakvih ograničenja, ali čvrsto potvrđuje pravo na privatno vlasništvo.

Enciklika snažno osuđuje lažne teorijesocijalista, i snažno brani pravo privatnog vlasništva. Pravi lijek za novonastale probleme, nalazi se u kombiniranom djelovanju crkve, države, poslodavaca idjelatnika. Crkva je s pravom zainteresirana za socijalna pitanja, zbog vjerskih i moralnih aspekata koja ta pitanja povlače za sobom, a država ima pravo i dužnost da intervenira u ime pravde po pitanjima osobnog i društvenog blagostanja. Poslodavci i djelatnici imaju pravo i dužnost da organiziraju vlastita, ali i zajednička udruženja za zaštitu i samozaštitu. [2]

Rerum Novarum želi pronaći treći put u sukobu rada i kapitala, a ta bi se harmonija postigla ugovorom o pravima i dužnostima radnika i kapitalista, i ukratko bi glasila ovako:

•           1) Djelatnik se obavezuje da će u potpunosti iskreno obavljati svoje dužnosti.

•           2) Djelatnik se obavezuje da neće vršiti vandalizam ili osobne napade.

•           3) Djelatnik se obavezuje da će se kolektivno suzdržati od nereda i nasilja.

S druge strane poslodavac se obavezuje da će:

•           1) Djelatnicima davati poštenu plaću (naknada treba biti dovoljna za razumnu i štedljivu  udobnost)

•           2) omogućiti slobodno vrijeme radnicima za njihov obiteljski i vjerski život,

•           3) voditi računa kod podjele posla o sposobnosti i godinama radnika,

•           4) poštivati prava radnika, te da neće postupati sa njima kao robovima.

U doba kad je objavljena mnogi konzervativni katolici doživljavali su encikliku kao nešto vrlo modernističko i protivno interesima crkve. Ona je prije svega (prilično zakašnjelo) artikulirala poziciju Rimokatoličke crkve po pitanju socijalne pravde, naročito u odnosu na probleme koje je stvorila industrijska revolucija, ali je naglasila crkveno pravo na izjašnjavanje o socijalnim pitanjima, koja su vezana uz pitanja morala.

Enciklika Rerum Novarum je s vremenom postala temelj Socijalnog nauka Katoličke crkve kojeg se ona i danas drži. Iako se na prvi pogled čini vrlo udaljena, ona se u suštini doktrinarno drži slavne Isusove – Dajte caru carevo a bogu božije. Rerum Novarum bio je i inspiracija zaMussolinijev korporativizam i kasniji fašizam. Ipak vjerojatno niti jedna enciklika o socijalnim pitanjima, nije imala tako mnogo čitatelja i izvršila tako širok utjecaj na svijet kao Rerum Novarum.

Izvor: Rerum novarum – hr.Wikipedia

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Rerum Novarum

From the Catholic Encyclopedia

The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the “Condition of Labour”. Although the Encyclical follows the lines of the traditional teaching concerning the rights and duties of property and the relations of employer and employee, it applies the old doctrines specifically to modern conditions. Opening with a description of the grievances of the working classes, it proceeds to refute the false theories of the Socialists, and to defend the right of private ownership. The true remedy, continues the pope, is to be found in the combined action of the Church, the State, the employer and the employed. The Church is properly interested in the social question because of its religious and moral aspects; the State has the right and the duty to intervene on behalf of justice and individual and social well-being; and employers and workers should organize into both mixed and separate associations for mutual protection and for self protection. All this is set forth with sufficient detail to reach the principal problems and relations of industrial and social life.

Probably no other pronouncement on the social question has had so many readers or exercised such a wide influence. It has inspired a vast Catholic social literature, while many non-Catholics have acclaimed it as one of the most definite and reasonable productions ever written on the subject. Sometimes criticized as vague, it is as specific as any document could be written for several countries in different stages of industrial development. On one point it is strikingly definite: “Let it be taken for granted that workman and employer should, as a rule, make free agreements, and in particular should agree freely as to wages; nevertheless, there is a dictate of natural justice more imperious and ancient than any bargain between man and man, that remuneration should be sufficient to maintain the wage-earner in reasonable and frugal comfort. If through necessity or fear of a worse evil the workman accept harder conditions because an employer or contractor will afford him no better, he is made the victim of force and injustice.”. Although this doctrine had been a part of the traditional teaching for many centuries, it had never been stated with such precision and authority. As the years go by and thoughtful men realize more and more how difficult it is to define the full requirements of justice in the matter of wages, a constantly increasing number of persons look up on this statement of Leo XIII as the most fruitful and effective principle of industrial justice that has ever been enunciated.

JOHN A. RYAN


CatholiCity.com © 1996-2013 The Mary Foundation

Source: Rerum Novarum – Catholic Encyclopedia

 

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