Hrvatska Akademia Znanosti i Umjetnosti

Katolička Crkva

Karizmatski pokret

Image

iccrs.org

”It Does Change Peoples lifes!”

”We live in the Church at a privileged moment of the Spirit. Everywhere people are trying to know Him better, as the Scripture reveals Him. They are happy to place themselves under His inspiration. They are gathering about Him; they want to let themselves be led by Him.”
EVANGELII NUNTIANDI, 75

Image

ICCRS – TV - Questions to the Speakers
(connection somewhat slow, be patient!)

Image
kristofori.hr

‘U Nicejskom vjerovanju revidiranom na  Prvome carigradskom saboru održanome 381. piše: “Vjerujem u Duha Setoga,Gospodina i životvorca“Duh Sveti na hebrejskom se jeziku kaže ruah, a na grčkom pneuma što može znači ti dah, vjeta ili zrak.’

‘Može se reći da je Duh nešto nevidljivo s vidljivim djelovanjem.

Kao što voda zemlju čini plodnom tako što prodire u nju, tako Duh ispunja čovjeka prožimajući ga. Vatra Duha Svetoga gori, a ipak ne izgara (usp. Izl 3,2). To je slika stalnosti ljudskoga života.’

‘Duša ispunjena Duhom Svetim je radosna.
Nikada joj nije dosadno u Božjoj prisutnosti.
Njezino srce zrači jer ju Duh Sveti posvećuje.
Jahve, Bog, napravi čovjeka od praha zemaljskog i u nosnice mu udahne dah života (Post 2,7).

Duh Sveti djeluje tako da oblikuje, izgrađuje i posvećuje kako bismo postali žive ikone Isusa Krista.’

GLASNIK ICCRS-A NA HRVATSKOM

glasnik-hr

iccrs.org,kristofori.hr

Rerum Novarum

(en) ”Public institutions and the laws set aside the ancient religion. Hence, by degrees it has come to pass that working men have been surrendered, isolated and helpless, to the hardheartedness of employers and the greed of unchecked competition. The mischief has been increased by rapacious usury, which, although more than once condemned by the Church, is nevertheless, under a different guise, but with like injustice, still practiced by covetous and grasping men. To this must be added that the hiring of labor and the conduct of trade are concentrated in the hands of comparatively few; so that a small number of very rich men have been able to lay upon the teeming masses of the laboring poor a yoke little better than that of slavery itself.”

(hr) ” Javne ustanove i zakonodavstvo ukinuli su drevnu religiju. Tako da se postupno dogodilo to da su se djelatnici predali i postali izolirani i nemoćni uslijed bezćutnosti poslodavaca i pohlepe kao posljedice nekontroliranog (tržišnoga) natjecanja. Bijeda se povečala još više uslijed bezobzirnoga iskorištavanja i koja se, iako opetovano osuđivana od strane Crkve ipak, maskirana, ali sa sličnom nepravičnošću i dalje još uvijek prakticirala od strane  grabežljivih pojedinaca. Tomu se mora dodati i to da su zapošljavanje radne snage i vođenje trgovine koncentrirani u rukama relativno male skupine pojedinaca, tako da se je malom broju vrlo bogatih omogućilo da velikoj masi radništva nametnu nešto manji jaram od samoga ropstva.”

Source: Rerum Novarum – Vatican

Leo XIII Rerum Novarum quote

Image

“YES, THERE IS A PROBLEM CONCERNING THE CONDITION OF WORKERS, AND SOMETHING MUST BE DONE, BUT THE SOCIALIST PROJECT IS NOT THE SOLUTION.”

Rerum Novarum §1-25: Analysis

The first thing to notice is that, although this document is addressed to the Bishops of the Church (as all encyclicals are), it clearly is intended for the world at large. Here Pope Leo is not instructing merely the Bishops or the Catholic faithful, but all those who recognize the problems between workers and capitalists and are concerned to find a feasible solution. The second thing to notice is that the Pope is directly refuting socialist theory – this document reads like a point-by-point refutation of The Communist Manifesto. All of the key claims and proposals of the Manifesto are shown to be erroneous and unjust: the idea that class warfare is inevitable, the proposal to eliminate private property, the notion that the State should control of the family. So the encyclical begins by saying, in essence, “Yes, there is a problem concerning the condition of workers, and something must be done, but the socialist project is not the solution.”

Source: Rerum Novarum- Analysis

Rerum Novarum §1-25: Summary

[17] First of all, we must take into account human nature, which the socialists seem to ignore or pretend they can change by making all men equal. The fact is that all men are not the equal, with respect to natural abilities and proclivities. A just society provides opportunities for each man to take part in the way in which he is best able, and which suits him best.

[18] Similarly, the socialists are lying or deluded when they promise that they can build a perfect world, free from suffering and injustice, and it is cruel for them to promise what can never be.

[19] One of the biggest errors of the socialists is to insist that the classes are naturally and inevitably hostile to one another – when, in fact, just the opposite is true. The classes need each other, for capital can do nothing without labor, and labor likewise needs capital. And both need the Church to help them act justly toward each other.

[20] Workers must be dutiful in carrying out the labor for which they have willingly contracted, and they should behave with respect toward their employer and his property. Likewise, employers should respect the human dignity of workers, paying them a just wage and allowing them time to fulfill their familial and religious obligations. By no means may they take advantage of a man’s neediness to satisfy their own greed, nor should they manufacture ways to deduct from a man’s just wages. In fact, because the worker has such scanty means, those means should all the more be respected. These basic principles alone, if followed scrupulously, would suffice to maintain good relations between labor and capital.

Source: Rerum Novarum – Summary

(hr) ”Enciklika snažno osuđuje lažne teorije socijalista, i snažno brani pravo privatnog vlasništva. Pravi lijek za novonastale probleme, nalazi se u kombiniranom djelovanju crkve, države, poslodavaca idjelatnika. Crkva je s pravom zainteresirana za socijalna pitanja, zbog vjerskih i moralnih aspekata koja ta pitanja povlače za sobom, a država ima pravo i dužnost da intervenira u ime pravde po pitanjima osobnog i društvenog blagostanja. Poslodavci i djelatnici imaju pravo i dužnost da organiziraju vlastita, ali i zajednička udruženja za zaštitu i samozaštitu.”

(en) ”Encyclica strongly condemns the false theories of Socialists, and strongly defends the right of private property. The real cure for emerging problems is a combined work of the church, the state, employers and workers The church is rightly interested in social issues, because of religious and moral aspects that these issues entail, and the state has the right and duty to intervene in the name of justice in matters of personal and social well-being. Employers and employees have the right and duty to organize their own, but also a common association for the protection and self-protection.”

Rerum Novarum (hr)

Rerum Novarum (prevedeno sa latinskog: O novim stvarima) je enciklikakoju je objavio papa Lav XIII. 15. svibnja 1891. upućena svim katoličkimbiskupima, sa podnaslovom – Prava i obaveze rada i kapitala.

U njoj se raspravlja o odnosu i međusobnim obavezama između ljudske djelatnosti i kapitala, kao i države i njezinih pučana. Već se u prvim redovima naglašava važnost i potreba za poboljšanjem položaja radnika jer je upravo njihov položaj, bez njihove krivnje, najvećim dijelom bijedan i nevoljan. Enciklika načelno podržava pravo radnika na organiziranje svojih udruženja (sindikati), ali odbacuje socijalizam (ukidanje privatnog vlasništva, borba za radnička prava štrajkovima) kao i kapitalizam bez ikakvih ograničenja, ali čvrsto potvrđuje pravo na privatno vlasništvo.

Enciklika snažno osuđuje lažne teorijesocijalista, i snažno brani pravo privatnog vlasništva. Pravi lijek za novonastale probleme, nalazi se u kombiniranom djelovanju crkve, države, poslodavaca idjelatnika. Crkva je s pravom zainteresirana za socijalna pitanja, zbog vjerskih i moralnih aspekata koja ta pitanja povlače za sobom, a država ima pravo i dužnost da intervenira u ime pravde po pitanjima osobnog i društvenog blagostanja. Poslodavci i djelatnici imaju pravo i dužnost da organiziraju vlastita, ali i zajednička udruženja za zaštitu i samozaštitu. [2]

Rerum Novarum želi pronaći treći put u sukobu rada i kapitala, a ta bi se harmonija postigla ugovorom o pravima i dužnostima radnika i kapitalista, i ukratko bi glasila ovako:

•           1) Djelatnik se obavezuje da će u potpunosti iskreno obavljati svoje dužnosti.

•           2) Djelatnik se obavezuje da neće vršiti vandalizam ili osobne napade.

•           3) Djelatnik se obavezuje da će se kolektivno suzdržati od nereda i nasilja.

S druge strane poslodavac se obavezuje da će:

•           1) Djelatnicima davati poštenu plaću (naknada treba biti dovoljna za razumnu i štedljivu  udobnost)

•           2) omogućiti slobodno vrijeme radnicima za njihov obiteljski i vjerski život,

•           3) voditi računa kod podjele posla o sposobnosti i godinama radnika,

•           4) poštivati prava radnika, te da neće postupati sa njima kao robovima.

U doba kad je objavljena mnogi konzervativni katolici doživljavali su encikliku kao nešto vrlo modernističko i protivno interesima crkve. Ona je prije svega (prilično zakašnjelo) artikulirala poziciju Rimokatoličke crkve po pitanju socijalne pravde, naročito u odnosu na probleme koje je stvorila industrijska revolucija, ali je naglasila crkveno pravo na izjašnjavanje o socijalnim pitanjima, koja su vezana uz pitanja morala.

Enciklika Rerum Novarum je s vremenom postala temelj Socijalnog nauka Katoličke crkve kojeg se ona i danas drži. Iako se na prvi pogled čini vrlo udaljena, ona se u suštini doktrinarno drži slavne Isusove – Dajte caru carevo a bogu božije. Rerum Novarum bio je i inspiracija zaMussolinijev korporativizam i kasniji fašizam. Ipak vjerojatno niti jedna enciklika o socijalnim pitanjima, nije imala tako mnogo čitatelja i izvršila tako širok utjecaj na svijet kao Rerum Novarum.

Izvor: Rerum novarum - hr.Wikipedia

——————————————————————————————————————

Rerum Novarum

From the Catholic Encyclopedia

The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the “Condition of Labour”. Although the Encyclical follows the lines of the traditional teaching concerning the rights and duties of property and the relations of employer and employee, it applies the old doctrines specifically to modern conditions. Opening with a description of the grievances of the working classes, it proceeds to refute the false theories of the Socialists, and to defend the right of private ownership. The true remedy, continues the pope, is to be found in the combined action of the Church, the State, the employer and the employed. The Church is properly interested in the social question because of its religious and moral aspects; the State has the right and the duty to intervene on behalf of justice and individual and social well-being; and employers and workers should organize into both mixed and separate associations for mutual protection and for self protection. All this is set forth with sufficient detail to reach the principal problems and relations of industrial and social life.

Probably no other pronouncement on the social question has had so many readers or exercised such a wide influence. It has inspired a vast Catholic social literature, while many non-Catholics have acclaimed it as one of the most definite and reasonable productions ever written on the subject. Sometimes criticized as vague, it is as specific as any document could be written for several countries in different stages of industrial development. On one point it is strikingly definite: “Let it be taken for granted that workman and employer should, as a rule, make free agreements, and in particular should agree freely as to wages; nevertheless, there is a dictate of natural justice more imperious and ancient than any bargain between man and man, that remuneration should be sufficient to maintain the wage-earner in reasonable and frugal comfort. If through necessity or fear of a worse evil the workman accept harder conditions because an employer or contractor will afford him no better, he is made the victim of force and injustice.”. Although this doctrine had been a part of the traditional teaching for many centuries, it had never been stated with such precision and authority. As the years go by and thoughtful men realize more and more how difficult it is to define the full requirements of justice in the matter of wages, a constantly increasing number of persons look up on this statement of Leo XIII as the most fruitful and effective principle of industrial justice that has ever been enunciated.

JOHN A. RYAN


CatholiCity.com © 1996-2013 The Mary Foundation

Source: Rerum Novarum - Catholic Encyclopedia

 

Croatia in Present Continous

#01

Croatia is a special case of a country in which government does not listen to the will of its people.

But it is not big wonder, because it emerged from under the iron curtain after the fall of Berlin Wall and a heavy titoist dictature …

It is also somehow understandable if we are taking in account that it emerged after thousand years, after tragic death of late croatian king, Petar Svačić in the Battle of Gvozd Mountain (today Petrova Gora i.e. Peter’s Mountain, in central Croatia,) which took place in the year 1097, between the army of Croatian king Petar Svačić and King Coloman I of Hungary., and having some elements of statehoodness and Crown address in Austro-Hungarian superstate, beign forged in a bloodiest agression in newer history of Europe, and out of serbian dominance hidden behind communist panslavic propaganda of ‘brotherhood and unity’. And because of different cultures unconnectable – Serbs beign six hundered years under Turk’s occupation – and for their inherent bizantine mentality …
emojnarodelb
After death of the first President of the modern and democratic state of Croatia, dr. Franjo Tuđman, in 1999., Račan (SDP, late communist leader of SKH, Unity of Communists of Croatia), came on power in 2000, who made largest administrative cleansing ever known in post-war Europe …

Than came Sanader to continue the so called ”detuđmanisation” – gradualy returning of Croatia in pre-war undemocratic period and under domination of a citizen minority over greater peoples majority …

”Sanader prepared everything to them, ‘with a little of a breeze’, Jaca pushed a bit, Milanović cookadoodledooed some for the finish … and ‘let the devil takes it all’, celebration is allover and everyone’s full of happiness and joy!

And People? Who cares about People!

#2

Udar na Ustav je uvod u građanski sukob jačega intenziteta?

”Do naroda, građana, radnika, sindikata, stručne javnosti, pa ni do svojih birača nimalo ne drži …                                                                       Aktualna vlast skoro sve pokušava riješiti silom …                                         Nema o važnim problemima ni razgovora, a kamo li težnje za konsezusom.                                                                                                                   Od početka referendumske akcije građanske inicijative „U ime obitelji“ znali smo i o tome ovdje pisali, uporno i stalno, kako će Kukurika učiniti baš sve da onemogući iskazanu narodnu volju, na svaki način, makar to bilo i protuustavno. Uostalom narod je za Partiju i partije uvijek bio ništa, uopće ga ne doživljava, jer jedino ona (Partija) sve zna, može i hoće.                                                                                                  … usuprot stajalištu Ustavnog suda još uvijek nije sigurno da će se referendum o definiciji braka uopće održati, odnosno o njemu će i nakon što se provede i ma kako „narod“ na njemu odlučio, konačnu odluku donijeti takvi kao Peđa Grbin …”

”Kukurika je otpočetka udarila na zakone, nit ih se drži „ko pijana plota“, niti su oni za nju „Sveto pismo“ već s njima postupa tipično boljševičko-staljinistički: što joj je volja. U međuvremenu se dočepala i Ustava RH pa i njega krenula čerupati, bušiti i čerečiti. Ustav? On je za nju jedno ništa, pa će ga prekrojiti po svojoj čistoj volji, uz malo nužne trgovine do dvotrećinske većine.
ustav-HR_31
Od početka referendumske akcije građanske inicijative „U ime obitelji“ znali smo i o tome ovdje pisali, uporno i stalno, kako će Kukurika učiniti baš sve da onemogući iskazanu narodnu volju, na svaki način, makar to bilo i protuustavno. Uostalom narod je za Partiju i partije uvijek bio ništa, uopće ga ne doživljava, jer jedino ona sve zna, može i hoće. Prema tome i usuprot stajalištu Ustavnog suda još uvijek nije sigurno da će se referendum o definiciji braka uopće održati, odnosno o njemu će i nakon što se provede i ma kako „narod“ na njemu odlučio, konačnu odluku donijeti takvi kao Peđa Grbin.

Ne ćete se vi „narode“ nama ovdje, pored žive Partije, igrati referenduma! A ubuduće, ubuduće će vidjeti što s tm referendumima uopće činiti, možda to ukinuti. Neka nikoga ne zavara onaj Dragan Zelić iz Gonga koji je fol za referendum, on je naime protiv samoga referendumskog pitanja, traži samo lukaviji izlaz i kako zadati smrtni udarac građanskoj inicijativi. „Civilnjak“ jedan, da „civilinjak“… Velika većina pravnih stručnjaka govori kako je riječ o ustavnoj krizi, no ne bih s Grbinima trijebio pravničke buhe. Naravno da je riječ i o ustavnoj krizi, ali mene brine trenutak kad bi ova, i niz drugih „kriza“, mogla prerasti u nešto što će dobiti obrise građanskog rata. Kad ga nije bilo jučer, iako su se o njemu tako zgodimice izjašnjavali i Milanović i Josipović, zašto ga ne bi bilo sutra?

”Silom se ušlo u tzv. registar branitelja, silom se uveo sporni zdravstveni odgoj u škole, čak i nakon intervencije Ustavnog suda, silom se mijenja Zakon o radu… Po još nezaliječenim ratnim vukovarskim ranama Vlada „vrti“ nekakvim dvopismenim pločama demonstrativno ih prikucavajući na državne zgrade. Rasprodat će sve, pa i autoceste, itd.”

Aktualna vlast skoro sve pokušava riješiti silom, kao da složene društvene probleme reže tupim zahrđalim nožem. Nema o važnim problemima ni razgovora, a kamo li težnje za konsezusom. Krenulo se sa specijalcima na seljake, u međuvremenu selo zamire, a poljoprivreda na selu se gasi, poticaji se ne isplaćuju iako se tvrdi suprotno. Silom se ušlo u tzv. registar branitelja, silom se uveo sporni zdravstveni odgoj u škole, čak i nakon intervencije Ustavnog suda, silom se mijenja Zakon o radu… Po još nezaliječenim ratnim vukovarskim ranama Vlada „vrti“ nekakvim dvopismenim pločama demonstrativno ih prikucavajući na državne zgrade. Rasprodat će sve, pa i autoceste, itd.

Do naroda, građana, radnika, sindikata, stručne javnosti, pa ni do svojih birača nimalo ne drži. Povlači se tek pred EU-om kao u slučaju Zakona o policiji, izaplotnog lex Perkovića, iako se muljanje, pa i ustavno glede njega nastavlja, i malčice kod Zakona o HRT-u. Nastavi li vlast ovom „trasom“ moglo bi biti žestoko pri čemu treba imati na umu da će Partija(e) učiniti sve kako bi sačuvale vlast, što koštalo da koštalo. Državnom „mašinom“ vladaju, čiste ju i glancaju, mijenjaju „dijelove“ za „dugi marš“ na vlasti. Mediji su tu, opća zarazna društvena apatija već je u stadiju depresije, ide im na ruku, slabašna i skoro nikakva oporba… i da dalje nepotrebno ne nabrajam. Sve je i više nego jasno i bistro. Ostaje nam jedino čekati i promatrati hoće li „kvantitet“ svih tih „kriza“ prerasti u „kvalitet“ žešćega građanskog sukoba, kada i kakvoga intenziteta.”

IZDVOJENO MIŠLJENJE:

”… Oni nama spremaju rat. Ne će demokratskim putem sići s vlasti.”

”… OLUJA bez krvi.Neka se organizira štrajk u svim hrvatskim gradovima …, dok vlada ne bude više Vlada.”

Source: Hrvatski Fokus, ”Prijeti nam građanski rat”
Objavljeno petak, 01. studeni. 2013. 00:00

#3

Zašto je hrvatski predstavnik redovito inferioran u susretu sa srbijanskim?

Susret u kojem zapravo Srbija nameće dnevni red, susret sa kojeg Josipović ide kući praznih ruku, susret u kojem se morao ispričavati zašto još nismo povukli tužbu za genocid, susret sa kojeg nije donio jednu šaku zemlje sa otetih vukovarskih ada, susret sa kojeg nije donio mapu jedne jedine minirane njive, susret sa kojeg nije donio vijest o tijelu jednog jedinog nestalog Hrvata, susret sa kojeg nije donio čak niti jednu jedinu sliku od šlepera pokradenog kulturnog blaga?

ultanacsoc

Upravo je nevjerojatno da u svim susretima sa svojim kolegama u Beogradu hrvatski predstavnici pokazuju kako im uporno nedostaje svijesti i odgovornosti da nastupaju i govore u ime upravo od srbijanske agresije tisuća ubijenih i desetaka tisuća ranjenih Hrvata! Od koje je neke možda snajperom osobno pogodio današnji srbijanski predsjednik Nikolić poznat po tome da je kao četnik ratovao po Slavoniji!

igranakarađorđ

Kako je moguće da se uporno ne razumije da predstavljanje Hrvatske u razgovoru sa Srbijom, a u kontekstu nerješenih pitanja, traži posve drugačiju intonaciju, drugi tekst i drugi pogled? Kako je moguće da susret hrvatskog predsjednika koji predstavlja krvavu žrtvu četničkog pira i srbijanskog predsjednika koji je osobno pucao po Hrvatima u tom ratu ispadne tako bezličan? Susret u kojem zapravo Srbija nameće dnevni red, susret sa kojeg Josipović ide kući praznih ruku, susret u kojem se morao ispričavati zašto još nismo povukli tužbu za genocid, susret sa kojeg nije donio jednu šaku zemlje sa otetih vukovarskih ada, susret sa kojeg nije donio mapu jedne jedine minirane njive, susret sa kojeg nije donio vijest o tijelu jednog jedinog nestalog Hrvata, susret sa kojeg nije donio čak niti jednu jedinu sliku od šlepera pokradenog kulturnog blaga? Srbija toliko poštuje Josipovića i Hrvatsku da pola zastupnika u srbijanskoj skupštini uopće nije došlo u skupštinu dok je on govorio! Što su naši mediji vješto prikrili, pa se ponovo postavlja pitanje imamo li HRT ili JRT, imamo li mi ovdje hrvatske dnevne novine ili podlistak beogradskog tiska? Zašto su gotovo svi izvjestitelji sakrili činjenicu da je Josipovića dočekala poluprazna vijećnica beogradske skupštine, a naglašavali su pompozno da je to eto prvi govor jednog hrvatskog predsjednika u srbijanskom parlamentu? Da, bio je to prvi govor hrvatskog predsjednika u srbijanskoj skupštini, ali pred polupraznim gledalištem! A susret je odgađan mjesecima tobože da bi se dobro pripremio i da bi Nikolić promijenio svoja stajališta! Niti je susret dobro pripremljen, niti je Nikolić revidirao svoje četničke stavove. Po agencijskim izvješima Nikolić je faktički „napao“ Josipovića da zašto još nismo povukli tužbu za genocid, a Josipović nije skupio čak niti toliko hrabrosti da je odbrusio Nikoliću na tu provokaciju, nego je zapravo prebacio krivnju na Milanovića: da o tome odlučuju Vlada i parlament! A onda smo se još morali i ispričavati zbog problema sa dvojezičnim tablama i kleti da ćemo do zadnje kapi krvi poštivati ustavni zakon o manjinama! Umjesto da zatraži prije tog susreta konkretna rješenja vezana uz vukovarske ade, umjesto da dođe sa timom stručnjaka koji tamo sa drugom stranom raspravljaju o adama, umjesto da je došao sa popisom otetog kulturnog blaga i ultimativno tražio povratak otetog, Josipović baš niti jedan takav potez nije povukao. Nego je za ade nježno dometnuo da ako pregovori ne budu išli (ni nema ih!!!) da bi se onda morali poslužiti modelom koji je upotrebljen u problemu sa Slovenijom, dakle arbitražom. Kakav nježni diskurs u razgovoru o otetoj zemlji i u razgovoru sa četničkim ratnim snajperistom?! Da, jedino u čemu je otvoreno Josipović nastupio bilo je pitanje nestalih, ali i u toj temi ima neadekvatan pristup. Dok god to pitanje ne postavi u okviru nekog ultimatuma, traženjem otkopavanja nekih lokacija za koje se sumnja da kriju nestale, niti tu se ništa neće dogoditi. Bio je to susret koji ništa novoga nije donio Hrvatskoj. Ništa!

Zašto afirmiramo lažnu Nikolićevu evropsku pozu kad se radi o notornom četniku?

S druge strane taj je susret afirmirao lažnu Nikolićevu evropsku politiku i još lažniju pozu mirotvorca. Nije doduše fučkao dok je svirala himna, nije udario Josipovića, nije ga vrijeđao niti psovao. Ako to pišemo pod novom evropskom Nikolićevom politikom, jer četnici se obično tako ne ponašaju u susretu sa Hrvatima, onda je on postao evropljanin. Naime, čovjek koji je bio Šešeljev pomoćnik i zamjenik ne može se gledati u drugim kategorijama. Hrvatski predsjednik nikada, ali baš nikada dok se ne ispune svi preduvjeti koje tražimo ne bi trebao sjesti za stol sa Šešeljevim nasljednikom. Ne zbog neke lažne hrvatske nadmoćnosti nego zato jer su naši zahtjevi civilizacijski elementarni i oko njih ne bi smjelo biti pregovora. Tražimo tijela mrtvih, tražimo oteto kulturno blago, tražimo povrat zemlje koja je i katastarski naša! Kako se oko tih pitanja uopće može pregovarati i trgovati? Sve te probleme donijela je srpska agresija za čijeg trajanja je Nikolić bio četnički dragovoljac po Slavoniji! A ništa od naših uvjeta koje je ispisala srpska agresija ne dobiti i pristati na susret sa krvnikom, to mi se čini mimo svake političke pameti. Zato jer time bildamo Nikolićev image koji ne postoji, zato jer legaliziramo njegovo četništvo što će se upravo nama prvima obiti o glavu i zato jer relativiziramo i naše zahtjeve i naše patnje. Ništa ne dobivamo, samo gubimo i još smo bili u nužni ispričavati se za tekstove u knjigama glede rata.Tretirate nas kao okupatore i četnike reći će Nikolić, ali kako da ih tretiramo kad su nas okupirali i kako da ih tretiramo kad se baš on ponosio da je četnik?! Ali, zato su Srbi zadovoljili svaku formu koju je očito hrvatska strana tražila: famozni susret gospodarstvenika, koji dakako ništa neće donijeti niti promijeniti i pokaznu vježbu zajedničkog posjeta hrvatskom selu Tavankut u Vojvodini. Gdje su hrvatska djeca po prvi put nakon 22 godine dobili udžbenike na hrvatskom jeziku. I to se piše kao uspjeh?? Kad Josipović vodi Tadića u sela pokraj Knina onda je to doista evropski kulturni posjet: Josipović je istinski predan zaštiti manjina i svakoj kulturnoj autonomiji, a Tadiću je taj posjet dobra pokazna vježba. Ali, kad Nikolić koji je u ratu čučao po slavonskim kukuruzima ne bi li zaklao kakvog Hrvata, stiže sa Josipovićem u Tavankut da demonstrira ono što nema, brigu o Hratima, onda to nije samo blasfemično.To je još gore: pristajanjem na tu lažnu predstavu Hrvatska zapravo pomaže Nikoliću u foliranju Zapada da je on pravi demokratski lider. Mi na našoj prolivenoj krvi o kojoj uglavnom šutimo, dajemo alibi Nikoliću kojeg on nema niti će ga ikada imati. Čovjek je ponosni četnik i točka! Čak i da Josipović mora igrati ove igre zbog pritiska izvana nema te svjetske sile makar se zvala i SAD koja ne bi razumijela da je Josipović postavio nekoliko elementarnih obaveznih preduvjeta za ovaj susret. Da ne sramoti sebe i sve nas!

Jovanovićev projekt ‘regionalnog sveučilišta’ perfidno će prisiljavati našu djecu da studiraju u regiji

Ono o čemu se nakon ovog susreta prestidljivo govori jest potpis ugovora o suradnji našeg i njihovog fakulteta političkih znanosti. Naravno da je svaka znanstvena suradnja već načelno dobrodošla, no ta dva fakulteta su uz časne iznimke, u komunističkih 50 godina izbacili sve moguće, u Hrvatskoj tumače i lidere jugoslavenstva, u Srbiji učitelje velikosrpstva. Nabrojite mi tri profesora zagrebačkog fakulteta političkih znanosti koji su se zdušno i predano bacili na posao stvaranja hrvatske države kad je to bilo najteže! Ali, zato tamo imate na šlepera tumača jugoslavenstva, socijalizma i titoizma. Hoće li sutra na traci izbacivati lidere regije? Do ove suradnje zapravo dolazi nakon što je ministar Jovanović sa svojim beogradskim kolegom na dan nogometne utakmice Hrvatska-Srbija, javnosti prezentirao da kreće projekt stvaranja „regionalnog sveučilišta“ što je nakon lex Perković i nasilnog uvođenja ćirilice u Vukovar uvjerljivo treći najodiozniji politički projeki ove vlasti. Naime, Hrvatska je ušla u Evropsku Uniju i zbog toga jer i svoju znanstvenu suradnju preferira sa Zapadom. Ili ćemo biti u Uniji, a imati zajedničko regionalno svečilište na Balkanu? No, ako nam djeca i moraju ići van studirati, žele li roditelji da idu u Kragujevac ili u Beč? Po čemu je hrvatski nacionalni i obrazovni interes da umjesto u Beč, Milano ili Berlin naša djeca idu studirati u Beograd, Kragujevac ili Novi Sad? Jer zajedničko regionalno sveučilište će sasvim sigurno stimulirati takvu studentsku razmjenu,to je i smisao priče zar ne? Pita li se netko po čemu bi tamošnji fakulteti mogli biti kvalitetniji za studiranje od bečkih, milanskih ili pariških? Po naobrazbi, po profesorskom kadru, po tradiciji, po stupnju povezanosti gospodarstva i znanosti? Ne, oni mogu biti samo jeftiniji i to tako da ih država baš u segmentu regionalnog povezivanja dodatno sufinancira kako bi potaknula baš takvu suradnju. Hoće li se uskraćivanjem novca nekim fakultetima u Hrvatskoj zapravo neizravno stimulirati da se određene fakultete odlazi studirati u Beograd i obratno? Je li to novo znanstveno bratstvo i jedinstvo? Do kuda seže ta manijakalna ljevičarska zaljubljenost u regiju u kojoj se oni ponašaju kao pravi narkomani Jugoslavije! Koji perverzni mozak je to u trenutku kad smo ušli u Uniju, mogao smisliti? Hrvatska jednostavno mora jačati svoju znanost i svoje obrazovanje i u tom smislu suradnju, tijesnu suradnju, sa najboljim evropskim fakultetima. Sad kad smo u Uniji to je puno lakše. Ali, pazite perverzije: sad kad smo ušli u Uniju,osim onoga što po crti članstva u Uniji „moramo“, ne događa se niti se stimulira taj proces većeg povezivanja sveučilišta hrvatskih i onih u Uniji. Ne odlazi Jovanović u Beč, Milano ili Graz na potpis ugovora o suradnji sveučilišta, nego odlazi u Beograd po takav potpis! Premda smo ušli u Uniju ovdje se događa posve obratan proces, povratka studiranja širom Jugoslavije putem ostvarivanja projekta “Regionalnog sveučilišta“??? Ima li netko normalan u našoj vlasti i ima li tamo netko tko voli ovu zemlju? Ili postoje samo nacionalno indiferentni i oni koji nisu prežalili Jugoslaviju?

Autor: Tihomir Dujmović

Datum: petak, 18. listopada 2013. u 10:53

Šport u Hrvatskoj – Atletika

Blanka Vlašić

Izvor: Wikipedija

 

Blanka Vlašić
Blanka Vlasic.jpg

Blanka Vlašić u Berlinu 2008. godine

Osobni podaci
Puno ime: Blanka Vlašić
Datum rođenja: 8. studenog 1983.
Mjesto rođenja: Split
Državljanstvo: Flag of Croatia.svg Hrvatska
Športski podatci
Osobni rekordi: 208 cm
 
Osvojene medalje
Atletika
Olimpijske igre
srebro Peking 2008. skok u vis
Svjetska prvenstva
zlato Osaka 2007. skok u vis
zlato Berlin 2009. skok u vis
srebro Daegu 2011. skok u vis
Svjetska dvoranska prvenstva
bronca SDP Budimpešta 2004. skok u vis
srebro SDP Moskva 2006. skok u vis
zlato SDP Valencia 2008. skok u vis
zlato SDP Doha 2010. skok u vis
Europska prvenstva
zlato EP Barcelona 2010. skok u vis
Mediteranske igre
zlato MI Tunis 2001. skok u vis

Blanka Vlašić (Split, 8. studenog 1983.), hrvatska atletičarka, hrvatska rekorderka (208 cm – 2. rezultat svih vremena) i dvostruka svjetska prvakinja u skoku u vis.

Sadržaj

Mladost

Rođena je u sportskoj obitelji. Otac Joško bio je uspješan atletičar, desetobojac i osvajač zlatne medalje na Mediteranskim igrama u Casablanci, gradu po kojem je i Blanka dobila ime. Majka Venera je bivša prvakinja Jugoslavije u skijaškom trčanju.

Privukla je pažnju svjetske atletske javnosti već sa 16 godina, kada je počela ostvarivati zapažene rezultate. S nepunih 17 godina nastupala je na Olimpijskim igrama u Sydneyu 2000 godine. Godinu poslije već ima šesto mjesto na Svjetskom atletskom prvenstvu u kanadskom Edmontonu. U konkurenciji juniora Blanka je bila nedodirljiva. Osvojila je dva naslova svjetske prvakinje. Prvi put je visinu od 200 cm, preskočila na Hanžekovićevom memorijalu u Zagrebu, gdje je imala simboličan startni broj 200.

Seniorski nastupi

Nakon uspješnog uzleta u svijetu seniorske atletike, veliko breme očekivanja rezultata od nje na Ljetnim olimpijskim igrama u Ateni 2004. godine od strane hrvatske javnosti, prekinulo je njezin niz uspješnih nastupa. Zbog stresa se pojavio nepravilan rad štitnjače, koja je operativno izvađena 2005.g. (slična stvar se dogodila i alpskoj skijašici Janici Kostelić). Bila je bez natjecanja 333 dana sve do prvenstva Hrvatske 2005., kada je preskočila 195 cm. Blanka se uspješno vratila skokovima početkom 2006., kada ostvaruje tada najbolje rezultate svoje karijere (već otprije je hrvatska rekorderka s preskočenih 203 cm na otvorenom). Dobitnica je Državne nagrade za šport “Franjo Bučar” 2006. godine, a nominirana je i za najbolju atletičarku 2007. godine.

Sezona 2007.

Godina 2007. bila je briljantna za Blanku Vlašić. Početak nije bio obećavajući. Na Europskom dvoranskom prvenstvu u Birminghamu bila je 5. s preskočenih 192 cm. Nastupila je na osam dvoranskih mitinga, a na tri je pobijedila. Na atletskom mitingu u Splitu, 24. veljače 2007., bila je 2. s preskočenih 200 cm. Na prvom atletskom mitingu na otvorenom, u katarskoj Dohi, pobijedila je s novim hrvatskim rekordom 204 cm. Na mitingu u Madridu, preskočila je 205 cm, a samo tjedan dana kasnije, 30. srpnja 2007. preskočila je visinu od 206 cm na atletskom mitingu u Solunu i tako postavlja novi osobni i hrvatski državni rekord, kojeg samo tjedan dana poslije ruši na atletskom mitingu u Stockholmu skokom od 207 cm. Tako je četiri puta u sezoni rušila osobni i hrvatski rekord. Sedam puta pokušala je srušiti svjetski rekord Bugarke Stefke Kostadinove od 209 cm.

Blanka Vlašić slavi pobjedu na svjetskom atletskom prvenstvu u Osaki 2007.

Na svjetskom atletskom prvenstvu u japanskoj Osaki, 2. rujna 2007., skokom od 205 cm (iz trećeg pokušaja), postala je svjetska atletska prvakinja.

Pobijedila je na 18 od 19 natjecanja u sezoni na otvorenom, uključujući i mitinge Zlatne lige u Parizu, Rimu, Zürichu, Bruxellesu i Berlinu. Jedino je u Oslu bila druga. Pobijedila je na svjetskom atletskom finalu u Stuttgartu. Na 20 natjecanja, preskočila je 200 cm. Čak 11 puta preskočila je 202 cm na otvorenom, sve ostale atletičarke ukupno 8 puta u sezoni. Sa 207 cm, došla je na diobu drugog mjesta svih vremena. Imala je 6 najboljih skokova sezone i 8 od najboljih 10. Proglašena je europskom atletičarkom godine. Nominirana je za najbolju svjetsku atletičarku godine i bila je druga. Svjetska atletska federacija (IAAF), proglasila je njen skok od 207 cm, najboljim ženskim atletskim rezultatom godine. U izboru Sportskih novosti, proglašena je najboljom sportašicom Hrvatske u 2007. Ušla je u povijest, kao prva koja je dobila glasove baš svih novinara (365). Druge sportašice nisu dobile nijedan glas, što nije uspjelo ni Janici Kostelić.

Sezona 2008.

Blanka je u novoj sezoni na otvorenom (do 1. lipnja) pobijedila na svih osam natjecanja na kojima je bila. I to uvijek sa skokovima preko dva metra. Seriju pobjeda započela je na dvoranskim natjecanjima. Na mitingu u Göteborgu 29. siječnja ostvarila je prvu pobjedu u sezoni, preskočivši 201 cm. Pobijeđivala je redom u Arnstadtu 2. veljače, s preskočenih 203 cm, u Banskoj Bistrici 5. veljače s preskočenih 204 cm te u Karlsruheu 10. veljače s preskočenih 202 cm. Prije nastupa u Splitu u dvorani Gripe, tužila se na bolove u kuku, ali je opet pobijedila s rekordom mitinga od 201 cm. U svibnju počinje sezona na otvorenom, a Blanka i dalje suvereno skače. Blanka je vlasnica prvih šest najboljih rezultata sezone, od kojih je najviši 206 cm. Jedino je Jelena Slesarjenko zabilježila pobjedu u ovoj godini, ali na mitingu na kojem Blanka nije sudjelovala.

Sezona 2009.

Blanka u kolovozu u Berlinu brani titulu svjetske prvakinje, a 31. kolovoza na Hanžeku, u Zagrebu, obara svoj osobni rekord preskačući 208 cm, što je drugi rezultat svih vremena.

Sezona 2010.

Na Svjetskom dvoranskom prvenstvu u katarskoj Dohi bila je prva s preskočenih 200 cm, čime je obranila naslov. Na Europskom prvenstvu u Barceloni, Blanka je osvojila zlatnu medalju s preskočenih 203 cm, što joj je bio rezultat sezone. Na Kupu kontinenata održanom u Splitu pobijedila je pred 20 000 gledatelja. [1]

Krajem prosinca 2010 , u izboru Međunarodnog udruženja sportskih novinara (AIPS) španjolski tenisač Rafael Nadal i Blanka Vlašić izabrani su za najbolje sportaše svijeta u 2010. godini.[2][3]

Hrvatsko znanje

Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti

Izvor: Wikipedia

Povijest

Već u 16. st. Hrvati su imali svoje akademije, znanstvene ustanove ili znanstvena društva najuglednijih i najučenijih ljudi, koji su uzeli sebi kao zadaću da svojim izdanjima, raspravama i povremenim akademičkim sastancima stalno daju nove poticaje znanstvenom istraživanju i gojenju čiste znanosti, umjetnosti i moralnih vrlina. Pripreme za osnutak današnje Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti u Zagrebu (HAZU) učinjene su u sam osvit hrvatskoga narodnog preporoda. Preporodne zamisli o osnivanju “učenog društva” izrečene u prvim desetljećima prošloga stoljeća u skladu s težnjama prvaka narodnoga buđenja, oblikovane su u zaključke Hrvatskoga sabora iz 1836. pa potom 1843, 1845. i 1847. godine, koje su vodile prema osnivanju ustanove od općeg nacionalnog značenja, najviše znanstvene i umjetničke ustanove: akademije znanosti.

Hrvatska Akademia Znanosti i Umjetnosti

Revolucionarni su događaji sljedećih godina i potom apsolutizam unutar Austro-Ugarske monarhije odgodili na više od deset godina izvršenje navedenih odluka. Nakon tzv. Luksemburškog manifesta cara Franje Josipa I. donekle se liberalizira politički i društveni život, pa novi Ustav od 1860. osigurava neovisan Hrvatski sabor. U tu svrhu sazvana Banska konferencija bila je važna i za osnivanje nacionalne akademije. Temelje HAZU položio je Josip Juraj Strossmayer, 10. prosinca 1860., kada je prvoj Banskoj konferenciji uputio pismenu darovnicu i dao novčani prilog (50.000 forinti) nužan za zakladu akademije. Njegov primjer ubrzo slijedi cijela Hrvatska. Upravo izabrani Hrvatski sabor 15. travnja 1861. već 29. travnja iste godine jednoglasno prihvaća Strossmayerov prijedlog o osnutku Akademije znanosti i stavlja je u svoju zaštitu, a istoga dana izabran je odbor koji će izraditi statut Akademije, s jasnim određenjem njezine svrhe i ustroja. Tada su prihvaćena Pravila i u obliku zakonskoga prijedloga poslana kralju na sankciju, koji ih potvrđuje tek 7. kolovoza 1863. uz zahtjev za promjenom određenih tekstualnih izričaja zbog posebnih interesa bečkih političkih čimbenika. Novoizabrani Sabor 1865. prerađuje Pravila i kralj odobrava prilično izmijenjena pravila o Jugoslavenskoj akademiji znanosti i umjetnosti tek 4. ožujka 1866. godine. Odmah zatim vladar je potvrdio i prvih 14 (od 16) pravih članova Akademije. Ta pravila ostala su nepromijenjena do početka Drugoga svjetskoga rata. [1]

Na sjednici 26. srpnja 1866. članovi prihvaćaju Poslovnik te biraju Josipa Jurja Strossmayera za pokrovitelja, a kanonika i povjesničara Franju Račkoga za prvog predsjednika. Nacionalna akademija znanosti i umjetnosti u svojim je početnim danima uzela ime akademije Slavorum meridionalium (južnoslavenska) kao iskaz romantično-utopijskog pogleda na slavensko jedinstvo europskog juga, da bi tek u doba samostalne Hrvatske (ne računajući odluku o hrvatskom imenu iz vremena Banovine Hrvatske i razdoblja NDH) u potpunosti zadobila narodno ime koje i danas nosi u skladu s riječima Franje Račkoga: “Naša je Akademija osnovana ponajprije da hrvatskomu narodu služi, da ispituje njegov jezik, njegovu povijest i književnost, domovine njegove prirodne odnošaje.”

Hrvatska akademija svake godine 29. travnja slavi Dan Akademije u spomen na odluku Hrvatskoga sabora o osnivanju akademije znanosti. Toga se dana istaknutim pojedincima dodjeljuju Nagrade HAZU.

/en/

The Founding of the Academy

In 1860, Josip Juraj Strossmayer, bishop of Đakovo and Srijem, took action to found a South Slavic Academy in Zagreb. He presented Josip Šokčević, the ban (Vice-Roy of Croatia), with a 50,000 florin endowment for the founding of the Academy. He also sent a letter expressing his wish that the Academy should “bring together the best minds (…) and find a way in which books in the national languages could be produced in the Slavic South; the Academy should also take under its aegis all the areas of human science”.

Palace of Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts

The facade of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts palace Zagreb

The Academy issue was officially raised by Bishop Strossmayer at the Croatian Parliament session held on 29 April 1861. Following the bishop’s proposal, the Parliament immediately elected a committee to draw up a statute for the Academy, and define its aims and organization. It was only five years later, on 4 March 1866, that the rules of the Academy, in a considerably changed form, were finally confirmed by Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. These remained unchanged until the beginning of World War II. During the existence of the Independent State of Croatia (1941-1945), the name of the Academy was changed to the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts; in the Socialist Republic of Croatia it resumed its activities under the former name of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts.

The National House (Illyrian Hall)

The National House (Illyrian Hall), the first headquarters of the Academy

After the establishment of the independent and democratic Republic of Croatia, a bill concerning the Croatian Academy was proposed by the Academy. The new Croatian Academy Act was passed by the Croatian Parliament on 26 June 1991, confirming the importance of all the activities of the highest institution of sciences and arts in the Republic of Croatia.
Although the first act concerning the founding of the Academy in Zagreb was passed by the Croatian Parliament as soon as in 1861, its establishment was actually ratified only when its rules, which had been proposed by the Croatian Parliament in changed form as required by the Austrian authorities, were confirmed by the Emperor in his letter of 4 March 1866. After that, the Parliament proposed the first sixteen members of the Academy. In this way, the Academy was finally constituted, both actually and legally. Bishop Strossmayer was elected patron of the Academy, and Franjo Rački, a distinguished Croatian historian, its first president.
Under Strossmayer and Rački, the Academy became an eminent institution of learning, which collaborated with well-established European academies. Strossmayer called the Academy Yugoslav (meaning ‘Southern Slav’) because he wanted to promote the development of sciences and culture of all the South Slavic nations, including the Bulgarians. The Academy in Zagreb, however, has always been Croatian in its membership and its activities. Besides, soon after the foundation of the Zagreb Academy, the Serbian and Bulgarian Academies were established, so that the idea that the Academy in Zagreb was an institution which could bring together all the South Slavic nations became impracticable. All the publishing activities of Zagreb’s Academy have been primarily and permanently focused on the study of Croatian history, culture, language, and natural heritage.
Franjo Rački, the first president of the Academy, was an excellent organizer of scientific work. He initiated and edited a number of the Academy’s editions and publications. The first issue of the scholarly periodical Rad (Monographs) was published already in 1867. All of the Academy’s departments contributed to this periodical until its sixtieth issue in 1882. After that, several departments began to publish their own series of Rad. With 496 volumes published up to the present day, it is the largest series among the Academy’s publications.

Reception rooms in the palace of the Croatian Academy

Reception rooms in the palace of the Croatian Academy

The first volume of Ljetopis (Annals) was published in 1887, and it soon became one of the regular annual publications of the Academy, as well as its administrative messenger. One hundred and nine volumes of Ljetopis have been published so far. Since the study of Croatian history remained for a long time the main task of the Academy, the number of publications in this field increased considerably. As early as 1868, the Academy came out with the first volume of the Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium, a series which publishes larger excerpts from archival documents (53 volumes have appeared to date). Starine (Antiquities), a series consisting mainly of fragmentary archival materials dealing with Croatian political and literary history, was first published in 1869. These main editions were divided into series, such as Monumenta RagusinaSpomenici Hrvatske krajine (Documents of the Croatian Frontier-Zone), and Scriptores, selected works of early Croatian historians. Statutes of Dalmatian towns, feudal laws and early acts written in Croatian have been published in the series Monumenta historico-iuridica (13 volumes). Zbornik za narodni život i običaje Južnih Slavena (Collection on the Folk Life and Customs of the Southern Slavs) was first published in 1896, and 54 volumes have been published so far.
Among the most important of the Academy’s numerous publications are: Građa za povijest književnosti hrvatske (Documents for the History of the Croatian literature, 35 volumes); Diplomatički zbornik Kraljevine Hrvatske, Dalmacije i Slavonije (The Diplomatic Codex of the Kingdom of Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia, 19 volumes); Noviji pisci hrvatski (Modern Croatian Writers, 12 volumes); Hrvatski latinisti (Croatian Latinists, 11 volumes); Građa za gospodarsku povijest Hrvatske (Documents for the Economic History of Croatia, 21 volumes); Djela (Works, 80 volumes), series in which monographs on Croatia’s country, history and language are published; Prirodoslovna istraživanja (Natural History Studies, 107 volumes); Pomorsko pravo (Maritime Law, 10 volumes); Građa za pomorsku povijest Dubrovnika (Documents for the Naval History of Dubrovnik, 6 volumes); Problemi sjevernog Jadrana (The Northern Adriatic Issues, 8 volumes), etc.
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts has organized over one hundred scientific meetings and conferences, evaluating works of important Croats throughout history. In addition, it has organized a number of symposia focusing on the history and economic development of Croatian regions, cities and towns, as well as on the problems of Croatia’s development. The Academy has published the following dictionaries: Mažuranić’s Prinosi za hrvatski pravno-povijesni rječnik (Contributions for a Croatian Historical Dictionary, 11 volumes), Benešić’s Rječnik hrvatskog književnog jezika od preporoda do l. G. Kovačića(Dictionary of the Croatian Literary Language from the National Revival to I. G. Kovačić, in 12 volumes), and Rječnik hrvatskoga kajkavskog književnog jezika(Dictionary of Croatian Literary Kajkavian, 10 volumes). The work on the largeRječnik hrvatskog ili srpskog jezika (Dictionary of the Croatian or Serbian Language, 97 volumes) went on for almost one hundred years.
Bishop Strossmayer initiated the construction of the Academy Palace on Zrinjevac, where he wanted to situate his gallery of paintings as well. The construction of the neo-Renaissance palace in Florentine style, as had been Strossmayer’s wish, began in August 1877, and it was completed in the summer of 1880. A quarter of the sum necessary to build the palace was donated by Strossmayer. Four years later, the Academy received the greatest of its patron’s donations: a collection of 256 works of art, mostly paintings (235) belonging to various Italian schools. The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters was opened in the Palace of the Academy on 9 November 1884 in the presence of Strossmayer himself.


updated: 03/16/11
text from: The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts  in Photographs, Zagreb 2007.
translated by: Gorka Radočaj

web editor: D. Torbica

Šport u Hrvatskoj

Izvor: Wikipedija

Hrvatska je specifična po tome što s obzirom na broj stanovnika postiže značajne športske rezultate. Naravno da najveći broj medalja na velikim natjecanjima (Olimpijadama) osvajaju velike države tipa SAD-a, Rusije ili Njemačke, no zapažen je uspjeh naših športaša i u ekipnim športovima (rukomet, vaterpolo, veslanje) i u pojedinačnim športovima (tenis, skijanje).

 Hrvatski šport

U skupnim su športovima svjetska zlata hrvatski športaši kao dio Jugoslavije ili kao samostalna Hrvatska osvajali u košarci, rukometu, vaterpolu i rukometu na pijesku. Olimpijskim su se zlatom okitili u nogometu, košarci, rukometu i vaterpolu. Europska su zlata osvajali u košarci, vaterpolu i australskom nogometu.

U skupnim su športovima svjetska zlata hrvatske športašice kao dio Jugoslavije ili kao samostalna Hrvatska osvajale u rukometu i rukometu na pijesku. Olimpijskim su se zlatom okitile u rukometu. Ostala odličja su osvajale u odbojci i košarci.

Tabula rasa?

Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006)
Sviet je RAVAN – bilješke (Friedman, 2006)

The World Is Flat
Summary and excerpts from Thomas Friedman’s ”The World is Flat” (2006)
by Bill Altermatt

[KEYWORDS: insourcing, outsourcing, offshoring, supply-chaining, in-forming, ]

CHAPTER 2: THE TEN FORCES THAT FLATTENED THE WORLD

What Tom Friedman means by the phrase “The World is Flat” is that “the global competitive playing field is being leveled…It is now possible for more people than ever to collaborate and compete in real time with more other people on more different kinds of work from more different corners of the planet and on a more equal footing than at any previous time in the history of the world” (p. 8). Friedman believes that this “flattening” of the world is the result of ten factors, which he outlines in chapter 2 of his book:

Flattener #1: “11/9/89, The New Age of Creativity: When the Walls Came Down and the Windows Went Up.”

On 11/9/89, the Berlin Wall fell (“the Walls Came Down”) and the citizens of the former Soviet empire were suddenly able to participate in the global economy. Friedman uses the fall of the Berlin Wall as a symbol for a general global shift towards democratic governments and free-market economies (where consumers determine prices based on what they’re willing to pay) and away from authoritarian governments and centrally planned economies (in which prices are set by government officials). India made the conversion from a centrally planned economy to a free-market system two years after the Berlin Wall fell, when its economy was on the brink of collapse. Their annual rate of India’s growth soared from 3% per year to 7%. Friedman argues that the Berlin Wall also represented a barrier to seeing the world as a “a single market, a single ecosystem, and a single community” (p. 53). When it fell, it became easier for the world to see itself as one gigantic economic playing field.

Six months after the fall of the Berlin Wall, in May 1990, Microsoft shipped its
breakthrough operating system, Windows 3.0 (“The Windows Went Up”). This may not sound like a big deal, but this operating system was so much easier to use than previous versions that Friedman argues it is in large part responsible for popularizing personal computing – everyday people began using computers. The reason that personal computing is influential is that it fostered people’s interaction with digital media content – music, pictures, video, and text that is
represented as 1’s and 0’s on a computer and thus can be stored, manipulated, and shared in an infinite number of ways. Film is replaced with memory cards. Records are replaced with electronic files on MP3 players. This is what Friedman means when he calls this period “The New Age of Creativity” – it is the time when people are given the tools to author and share new information faster and easier than ever before.

Flattener #2: “8/9/95, The New Age of Connectivity: When the Web Went Around and Netscape Went Public.”

The second flattener is a combination of technologies that gave us access to what we now know as the World Wide Web. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, using the Internet required considerable computer expertise and was often conducted over black-and-white text terminals. In the early 1990s, a scientist at CERN named Tim Berners-Lee created the programming language for writing webpages (called HTML) that allowed authors to do things like make “links” from one page to another and to store and share images. What really got things moving was the release of the first Netscape web browser in December 1994. Netscape took the HTML language and put it in the  background – the foreground became the pretty combination of images, text, and links that we think of today when we browse the Web. Netscape made the Web user-friendly and suddenly everybody was getting online. In addition,
Netscape was available for every major operating system: Microsoft Windows, Apple, and Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006) page 2

UNIX. This meant that everyone, no matter what computer they were using, could see the same webpages, access the same data. This was a huge advance in business computing because prior to Netscape, it was not uncommon for the computers in a business’ accounting division to be unable to communicate with the computers in the sales division. In addition to the Netscape browser, other standardizations further simplified communications among computers.
Ravandards emerged for email (SMTP and POP), file transfer (FTP), and secure data transmission (SSL). All of this ravandardization dramatically increased the ability of computers, and their users, to share information over vast diravances. Without the ravandardization, that information would have been forever marooned in the tiny networks scattered within businesses
and universities. Now, the sales department can receive an order on the web and within seconds the order has been routed to accounting (to create a bill) and to shipping (to send it to the consumer).

On 8/9/95, Netscape “went public” – they began selling stock on the open market. Friedman uses this date as a symbol for the beginning of the “dot com bubble” – an enormous rise (and, in 2000, an enormous fall) in the stock prices of technology companies that had anything to do with the Internet. The bursting of the bubble in 2000, with the resulting highly publicized bankruptcies of many “dot com” corporations, led a lot of people to believe that the bubble was a failure. But one very important positive outcome of the bubble was something that happened during the bubble’s explosive growth in the late 1990s: the laying of miles and miles of fiber optic cable, which could carry billions of times more information than the previous medium: the twisted-pair copper wire that is inside telephone lines. When the bubble burst, the American public still had this information superhighway, which is why high-speed (broadband) Internet service is now so inexpensive.

Flattener #3: “Work Flow Software”

Work flow software is software that enables workers in different locations to collaborate efficiently. Friedman gives the example of the work that goes on behind the scenes of the popular children’s program Higglytown Heroes. The writers work from home: Florida, London, New York, Chicago, etc. Visual design and direction is done by a team in San Francisco. Voice recording takes place in LA or New York. Computer animation is handled by programmers in
Bangalore, India. Work flow software enables all of them to access and manipulate everyone else’s contributions as they are made.
In Flattener #2, Friedman described how some computing ravandards (SMTP, FTP, SSL) allowed people using different computing systems to communicate with each other. In Flattener #3, he extends this to ravandards for digital content. Although many people bristle at Microsoft’s monopolistic business practices, the widespread adoption of their Office software (Word, Excel,
PowerPoint) has increased our ability to share and coordinate our work.
“Genesis: The Flat-World Platform Emerges” Friedman says that, with the addition of work flow software to the other two flatteners, we begin to see something new. With the rise of user-friendly computers (Flattener #1) that can share a wide variety of electronic content (Flatteners #2 and #3), it suddenly becomes possible to not only communicate over vast diravances but also to collaborate – to work together with others to create new information. The next six flatteners describe some of the ways this collaboration can take place.

Flattener #4: “UPLOADING, Harnessing the Power of Communities”

Uploading is the process of transmitting information from your computer to a network (as opposed to downloading, where the information goes from the network to your computer).
Friedman uses it as a symbol for how people can be creators of new information as well as Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006) page 3 consumers. Instead of people just downloading music or news, they are increasingly likely to contribute information: writing a review of a product they bought on Amazon.com, rating their professor at ratemyprofessor.com, or editing an encyclopedia entry on their favorite trivia topic on wikipedia.com.
Friedman discusses one area of uploading in depth: “Community-developed software.”
Typically, people think of software development as the result of the careful planning of small teams of experts who work for big companies like Microsoft. An alternative approach has emerged in which a community of amateur programmers works on a program collaboratively.
These people work on the program as a hobby, usually with no expectation of financial reward.
You might think that this approach would produce poor quality, but you would be wrong. Apache, the operating system used by almost all servers (the computers that store Internet content), was written this way. The one problem with community-developed software is service – whom do you call when your Apache server goes down? This problem has been resolved with a hybrid model in which the software is given away for free but reliable expert support is provided for a fee. Friedman believes this hybrid model will become increasingly important in the software industry.

Another example of the “flattening” of the world through uploading is the blog. Blog is the abbreviation for “web log” and consists of one person’s online journal, often with the ability for others to post comments. While some blogs are simply diaries, many are focused on particular issues – politics, science, the environment, etc. Many are also quite informative, backing up their claims with links to online data that can be falsified. Many also reference each other, allowing a reader to rapidly expand their knowledge in a particular area. But perhaps the most influential aspect of “bloggers” is their role as “an army of citizen journalists” (in the words of Howard Kurtz of the Washington Post). For example, shortly after Dan Rather gave a damaging report on George Bush’s National Guard service, bloggers began posting disconfirmations and giving extensive documentation to back them up. The news media is increasingly using the community of bloggers (known as the “blogosphere”) as a source of new leads.

In general, uploading represents a flattening of the world by breaking down the barrier from individual users to the online community. Friedman predicts that business, education, and politics will be changed by the increasingly participatory quality of online experience.

Flattener #5: “OUTSOURCING”: India

Outsourcing is the process of taking work that used to be done in-house (e.g.,
accounting) and paying another company to do it. If there is another company and all it does is accounting, there’s a good chance that it can do accounting cheaper than you can do it in your company. Why not reduce costs by eliminating your accounting department and outsourcing that task? One consequence of the flattening of the world is that it is now possible to outsource
“knowledge industry” jobs such as accounting, software development, or radiology to anyplace with 1) a broadband Internet connection, 2) expertise, and 3) proficiency in English. Friedman describes three major factors that contributed to India’s recent attractiveness to knowledge industry companies in the U.S.: 1) a huge amount of fiber-optic cable was laid in India by U.S.
companies in the 1990s, which became incredibly cheap after the dot-com bubble burst in 2000, giving Indians a nearly-free broadband connection to the U.S.; 2) India’s Institutes of Technology provide world-class education in engineering, computer science, and management; and 3) thanks to its history as a former British colony, India has the world’s second-largest population of English speakers. In the beginning, US companies outsourced only low-level
services such as data entry or transcription (listening to audiotapes of doctors and lawyers and typing out what they said) . Then in 1999, the “Y2K” fear gripped the U.S. Y2K refers to the Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006) page 4 Year 2000, and the concern was that much of the existing software stored information on year using only two digits: 97 instead of 1997. The fear was that when a program advanced from December 31, 1999 to January 1, 2000, it would behave as if the year was actually 1900,
potentially disrupting a huge amount of business and scientific calculations.     In 1999, U.S. companies were scrambling to make their software “Y2K compliant” and they were in short supply of English-speaking programmers. Enter hordes of well-trained Indian programmers who would work for a fraction of the cost of an American programmer and deliver high-quality work.
When the dot-com bubble burst in 2000, many software companies needed to cut costs and an easy way to do that was to hire back those Indian programmers they had used in 1999. Only now, thanks to the fiber-optic cable in India, those Indian programmers never have to travel to the U.S. – they can do all their work from home. Now, it is not uncommon for hospitals in the
U.S. to send digital X-rays to radiologists in India, who have the reports ready when U.S. doctors come back in the morning.

Flattener #6: “OFFSHORING”: China

Offshoring is when a company moves its production from its home country to another country, where it can be done with “cheaper labor, lower taxes, subsidized energy, and lower health-care costs” (p. 137). This is distinct from outsourcing, in which a company takes one of its peripheral tasks (e.g., accounting) and has another company handle it. Offshoring is what people in the U.S. complain about when they complain about manufacturing jobs moving to China. Whereas India has emerged as a center of knowledge-industry outsourcing, China has emerged as a center of manufacturing offshoring. The cost savings in moving manufacturing to China are so great that if one company begins moving its manufacturing to China, the only way for rival companies to survive is for them to also move their manufacturing to China. Friedman
quotes one expert who advises U.S. companies, “If you still make anything labor intensive, get out now rather than bleed to death” (p. 140). Offshoring to China took off relatively recently, on December 11, 2001, when China joined the World Trade Organization and international companies felt safer operating in China. The main reason that China is so attractive is that its workers are paid very little. This has caused companies in other developing countries to try to cut their wages to stay competitive, driving down wages for all unskilled workers in the developing world to stay competitive with “the China price.” Needless to say, the human costs of this process can be devastating. The fact that China’s wages have such a big impact on the wages of workers all over the globe is another example of how the world has become “flatter.”
Friedman cautions that focusing too much on this “race to the bottom” of wages may blind us to an even more unsettling development: China’s race to the top – their encroachment into the high-skill manufacturing of items like computer processors that were at one time only able to be manufactured in First World countries because of the education and training required of workers. This is a point that Friedman emphasizes throughout his book: The real money is
in creative design rather than manufacturing. China sees its low-wage manufacturing jobs as a stepping stone to dominating all stages of production, especially design. As soon as China’s education system catches up with the U.S., expect to see wages of our highly skilled workers (lawyers, doctors, computer programmers) fall as they start to compete against international workers who will do the same job for less money. To stay competitive in the knowledge
industry, the U.S. needs to put more of its resources into education and research. At present,
U.S. children are falling far behind Asian countries in their math and science performance. This must be reversed or we will be in big trouble.

It would also be a mistake to neglect some of the positive consequences of offshoring.
By moving their production overseas, U.S. companies are able to sell the same items to consumers for less cost. Friedman cites a 2004 Morgan Ravanley that estimated that offshoring to China has saved U.S. consumers $600 billion since the mid-1990s (p. 143).
Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006) page 5

Flattener #7: “SUPPLY-CHAINING”: Wal-Mart

Supply-chaining is increasing the connections between suppliers, retailers, and
customers. Friedman’s example of the ultimate supply-chainer is Wal-Mart: “Wal-Mart today is the biggest retail company in the world, and it does not make a single thing. All it ‘makes’ is a hyperefficient supply chain” (p. 152). Although Wal-Mart has come under heavy criticism for its treatment of employees, an often-overlooked factor contributing to its domination of the retail market is how intelligently it handles products. When a cashier scans your item in the checkout line, a signal is sent to Wal-Mart central command alerting them to changing demand in a product as well as the local supply. If demand is increasing faster than supply, a message is transmitted to Wal-Mart’s suppliers – which could be in Ohio or China – and more of that
product is inravantly on its way to your store. Communicating with suppliers in this way was completely new, and enabled them to increase or decrease production to keep up with demand. In addition to managing its information about supply intelligently, Wal-Mart also pioneered new ways to control its distribution of products. After it reached a certain size, it became cheaper for
Wal-Mart to handle all of its own distribution. You may have seen some of Wal-Mart’s distribution centers – mammoth structures where trucks come and go all night, bringing in products directly from diravant manufacturers and taking out products to its stores. Supplychaining is an example of the flattening of the world because of the way it levels the boundaries between customers and manufacturers regardless of where in the world those manufacturers exist.

Friedman also addresses the negative consequences of Wal-Mart’s obsession with efficiency. Because everything about Wal-Mart is aimed at keeping prices as low as possible, store managers are under tremendous pressure to keep labor costs low. Some of Wal-Mart’s more well-known infractions include locking overnight workers into its stores and contracting illegal immigrants to work as janitors. In addition to these crimes, Wal-Mart is like China in that
its low wages and benefits have forced other companies to cut their wages and benefits to compete. Whereas Wal-Mart insures about 45% of its workforce, its biggest competitor, Costco Wholesale, insures 96% (p. 250). However, Wal-Mart’s discounting on food saves American shoppers $50 billion each year and its profit margin is 5.5% compared to Costco’s 2.7% (p. 250). As shoppers and investors, we like Wal-Mart, but as employees and citizens, we do not.
Which role casts the deciding vote in whether Wal-Mart is good for America?

Flattener #8: “INSOURCING”: UPS

Supply-chaining is incredibly important for companies to compete globally, but it is also incredibly complicated. If you’re a little company, how can you afford the know-how to supplychain like Wal-Mart? Insourcing is hiring another company to handle your supply chain.
Friedman talks about how UPS (United Parcel Service) has transformed itself from just a delivery business into an insourcing company. UPS handles all the routing and scheduling of Papa John’s supply trucks. Toshiba insourced with UPS and was told it could save a lot of money by moving its laptop repair facility inside of UPS’ central distribution center in Louisville.
If you send a Toshiba laptop off for repair, you slap a UPS sticker on it, it is picked up by UPS and transported to the UPS Toshiba repair lab in Louisville, where UPS technicians do all the repair and then ship it back to you. Order a pair of shoes from nike.com and a UPS employee receives the message, picks the shoes off the shelf, inspects them, and ships them to you. By contracting with UPS, these companies gain some of the competitive advantage that Wal-Mart has achieved through its supply-chain. UPS reports that the majority of their customers are small businesses: “They are asking us to take them global. We help these companies achieve parity with the bigger guys” (p. 170). Insourcing flattens the world in three ways: by letting little companies be global companies, by dissolving barriers between companies (UPS is often so far Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006) page 6 inside its client companies that it is difficult to separate them), and by increasing the
ravandardization of business practices across companies and around the world.

Flattener #9: “IN-FORMING”: Google and Yahoo! Groups

In-forming refers to the dramatic change in how easy it is to obtain information. The World Wide Web provides users with a depth and breadth of information never before seen.
But all that information is useless unless you can find what you’re looking for. The Web search engine Google contributes to in-forming because it enables people to find webpages that are more relevant to their searches than any other search service. Google is based on the idea that webpages can be ranked by the number of links pointing to them. If one webpage on Spiderman has 10 links pointing to it while another webpage on Spiderman has 400 links
pointing to it, Google will rank the second webpage higher when it displays results for a search on “Spiderman”. Google combines this ranking system with a way to analyze page content to reduce false positives. It now processes over 1 billion searches per day, up from 150 million three years ago. Larry Page, Google’s co-founder, says that one piece of evidence that Google is a flattener is its user base: only 1/3 of searches are U.S.-based and less than 50% are in
English (p. 179). Says Sergey Brin, Google’s other co-founder, “whether a kid in Cambodia, the university professor, or me who runs this search engine, all have the same basic access to overall research information that anyone has. It is a total equalizer” (p. 178).                                                                                        Google puts more power in the hands of individuals by letting them do their own research. Colin Powell told Friedman that when he took over as Secretary of State in 2001, he would often wait minutes or hours for an aide to find information for him. “Now I just type into Google ‘UNSC Resolution 242’ and up comes the text” (p. 248).

One new risk in the flat world is that Google is allowing people to find out more about you than was ever possible before. As more information goes online (high school newspapers, crime logs, etc.), Google puts more of that information in people’s hands. It’s not uncommon for prospective employers or romantic partners to Google their prospects. Dov Seidman, who runs a business ethics consulting firm, writes “In this world you better do it right – you don’t get to
pick up and move to the next town so easily. In the world of Google, your reputation will follow you and precede you on your next stop. It gets there before you do…Reputation starts early now” (p. 185-6).

Whereas Google connects users with information and media, Yahoo! Groups connects people with similar interests to each other. Yahoo! Groups currently has about 13 million individuals participating every month in 4 million active groups. You can now communicate with like-minded people in private, semi-public, or public discussions regardless of time or diravance. All the mountains, valleys, and scheduling conflicts separating you from others have been
flattened.

Flattener #10: “THE STEROIDS”

Friedman defines “the steroids” as a combination of small factors that amplify the effects of outsourcing, off-shoring, uploading, supply-chaining, insourcing, and in-forming. The digital steroid, as discussed in Flattener #1, puts all text, sound, photo, and video media into a common ravandard – digital (0’s and 1’s in a computer) – that can be easily shared, stored, searched, and manipulated. An emerging digital flattener is VoIP (“voice over Internet Protocol”), which allows people to make phone calls using a broadband Internet connection.
This is a flattener because all VoIP calls cost the same, regardless of how far you are calling – next door or to another continent. The mobile steroid consists of technologies that let you work away from your office. Chief among these is the spread of wireless Internet access, which allows people to work online from their portable computers in airports, hotel lobbies, libraries, and even coffee shops. Personal steroids shift power from institutions to individuals and include
Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006) page 7 search engines (as discussed above), personal computers (now small enough and cheap enough for individuals to afford and even carry with them), and peer-to-peer file sharing (using programs like Napster or Kazaa, which allows individuals to directly connect to other computers and share music).

An example of these steroids is the story Friedman tells of a physician attending a medical conference presentation. The physician becomes convinced that the speaker is misquoting a source to support his argument. He pulls out his pocket computer, gets online with a wireless connection, looks up the source, and then raises his hand and quotes two lines from the source that contradict what the speaker said. All this in a few minutes while sitting in a
crowded room.

CHAPTER 3: THE TRIPLE CONVERGENCE

In chapter 3, Friedman combines the ten flatteners discussed in chapter 2 with two new factors. The important point of chapter 3 is not only what those two new factors are but the fact that all three factors came together at the same time (they “converged”) in a way that reinforced the flattening effects of each one.

Convergence I

The first convergence was the convergence of all the factors discussed in chapter 2, which together produced…
…a whole new platform. It is a global, Web-enabled platform for multiple forms of collaboration. This platform enables individuals, groups, companies, and universities anywhere in the world to collaborate – for the purposes of innovation, production, education, research, entertainment, and, alas, war-making – like no creative platform ever before. This platform operates without regard to geography, diravance, time, and, in the near future, even language. Going forward, this platform is going to be at the center of everything. Wealth and power will increasingly accrue to those countries, companies, individuals, universities, and groups who get three basic things right: the infrastructure
to connect with this flat-world platform [especially broadband Internet access], the education to get more of their people innovating on, working off of, and tapping into this platform, and, finally, the governance to get the best out of this platform and cushion its worst side effects. (p. 205)

Friedman cites a recent article by Kevin Kelly, one of the founders of Wired magazine, in which Kelly proposes that the current era is a turning point in our history as a civilization, a time when …humans began animating inert objects with tiny slivers of intelligence, connecting them into a global field, and linking their own minds into a single thing. This will be recognized as the largest, most complex, and most surprising event on the planet. Weaving nerves out of glass and radio waves, our species began wiring up all regions, all processes, all
facts and notions into a grand network. From this embryonic neural net was born a collaborative interface for our civilization (p. 206).

Convergence II

Convergence II occurred as business practices caught up with the changes in
technology produced by Convergence I. It took a surprisingly long time for companies to reap the benefits of Convergence I, but the economic historian Paul David writes that perhaps we shouldn’t have been surprised. When electrification began in the late 1800s, the factories that existed were built around steam technology – they were huge and designed to support massive
steam engines. Saving money from electrification didn’t happen overnight. To really save money, industrialists had to scrap those huge factories and replace them with smaller and Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006) page 8
cheaper factories that were filled with the lighter and cheaper electric motors. “Only when there was a critical mass of experienced factory architects and electrical engineers and managers, who understood the complementarities among the electric motor, the redesign of the factory, and the redesign of the production line, did electrification really deliver the productivity breakthrough in manufacturing” (p. 207). The same process took place with the rise of the ten flatteners: Companies didn’t see the benefits until there was a critical mass of experienced managers, innovators, business consultants, etc. who understood the flat world platform. The major business change was integration among different departments and sometimes integration of different companies. Common ravandards had to be adopted so that everyone in accounting (and their computers) could talk to everyone in sales (and their computers). When two businesses found that a new product (e.g., a cell phone with a camera) required their two areas of expertise, they merged to form a new, more efficient company with expertise in each area and the integration to allow this expertise to flow smoothly to create a single product. The second major change was a shift from vertical organization (administration gives orders to management, which gives orders to production, etc.) to a more horizontal organization in which information could flow in both directions: production workers could alert the designers of problems and could suggest fixes. Work teams were put together with members from several different departments so that the needs of each department were represented. Companies became more democratic and individual workers participated more at many levels.

Convergence III

The third convergence is demographic. In the 1990s, the nations of China, India, Russia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Central Asia opened their economies and political systems so that their citizens could participate on the global platform. At the same time that the global platform was being created, an additional 1.5 billion people suddenly became players.
It is this triple convergence – of new players, on a new playing field, developing
new processes and habits for horizontal collaboration – that I believe is the most important force shaping global economics and politics in the early twenty-first century. Giving so many people access to all these tools of collaboration, along with the ability through search engines and the Web to access billions of pages of raw information, ensures that the next generation of innovations will come from all over Planet Flat. The scale of the global community that is soon going to be able to participate in all sorts of discovery and innovation is something the world has simply never seen before…True, maybe only 10 percent of this new 1.5 billion-strong workforce entering the global economy have the education and connectivity to collaborate and compete at a meaningful level. But that is still 150 million people, roughly the size of the entire U.S. workforce. (p. 212-213).
These people are coming “with an enormous hunger to get ahead by outlearning their competition. What we are witnessing is a mad dash – born of fifty years of pent-up aspirations in places like India, China, and the former Soviet Empire, where for five decades young people were educated, but not given an outlet at home to really fulfill their potential” (p. 214). We should not expect that it will take them as long to catch up with us as it took for us to get where we are now because they can learn from our mistakes. At the same time, it would be more productive to see them as potential collaborators rather than competitors.

No Time to Rest

Rajesh Rao, founder and CEO of Dhruva Interactive, a small game company based inBangalore, India, told Friedman, “We can’t relax. I think in the case of the United States that is what happened a bit. Please look at me: I am from India. We have been at a very different level before in terms of technology and business. But once we saw we had an infrastructure Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006) page 9 which made the world a small place, we promptly tried to make the best use of it. We saw there were so many things we could do…There is no time to rest. That is gone. There are dozens of people who are doing the same thing you are doing, and they are trying to do it better…If there
is a skilled person in Timbuktu, he will get work if he knows how to access the rest of the world, which is quite easy today. You can make a Web site and have an email address and you are up and running. And if you are able to demonstrate your work, using the same infrastructure, and if people are comfortable giving work to you, and if you are diligent and clean in your
transactions, then you are in business” (p. 222).

CHAPTER 4: THE GREAT SORTING OUT

Surprisingly, the flattening process that we have been discussing was foreseen by Karl Marx and Frierich Engels, who published The Communist Manifesto in 1848:
The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the
bourgeoisie [the ruling class of wealthy capitalists] over the whole surface of the globe…To the great chagrin of reactionaries, it has drawn from under the feet of industry the national ground on which it stood. All old-established national industries have been destroyed or are daily being destroyed. They are dislodged by new industries, whose introduction becomes a life and death question for all civilized nations, by industries that no longer work up indigenous raw material, but raw material drawn from the remotest zones; industries whose products are consumed, not only at home, but in every quarter of the globe…In place of the old local and national seclusion and self-sufficiency, we have intercourse in every direction, universal inter-dependence of nations…The bourgeoisie, by the rapid improvement of all instruments of production, by the immensely facilitated means of communication, draws all, even the most barbarian nations, into civilization The cheap prices of commodities are the heavy artillery with which it batters down all Chinese walls, with which it forces the barbarians’ intensely obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate. It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilization into their midst, i.e., to become bourgeois themselves.

In this excerpt, we have the foreshadowing of multi-national corporations (“it has drawn from under the feet of industry…”), the rise of offshoring (“all old-established national industries have been destroyed”) and global supply-chains (“raw material drawn from the remotest zones”), and a concise explanation of why industrialized production has spread so quickly across the globe (“the cheap prices of commodities are the heavy artillery…”).
Harvard political theorist Michael Sandel does not follow Marx and Engels’ to their prediction of a worldwide revolution of laborers but he does reflect on some of the human institutions that are being flattened by the flattening of the world. It is not hard to see the connections between the following quote by Sandel and George Ritzer’s concerns in The McDonaldization of Society:

…[the flattening of the world] may also pose a threat to the distinctive places and communities that give us our bearings, that locate us in the world. From the first stirrings of capitalism, people have imagined the possibility of the world as a perfect market – unimpeded by protectionist pressures, disparate legal systems, cultural and linguistic differences, or ideological disagreement. But this vision has always bumped up against the world as it actually is – full of sources of friction and inefficiency. Some obstacles to a frictionless global market are truly sources of waste and lost opportunities. But some of these inefficiencies are institutions, habits, cultures, and traditions that people cherish precisely because Notes on The World is Flat (Friedman, 2006) page 10 they reflect nonmarket values like social cohesion, religious faith, and national pride. If global markets and new communications technologies flatten those differences, we may lose something important. That is why the debate about capitalism has always been, from the very beginning, about which frictions, barriers, and boundaries are mere sources of waste and inefficiency, and which are sources of identity and belonging that we should try to protect. (p. 237)